The Most Popular City of Armenia, his Capital Yerevan
The capital of Armenia, Yerevan, is one of the world’s oldest cities. It was founded in 783 BC, several years before the founding of ancient Rome, by king Argishti the First as Erebuni, the military and administrative center of the state of Urartu. The ruins of the fortress Erebuni are in the southeastern part of the present day Yerevan. The cuneiform inscription found at the site of Arin-Berd reads:
“With the power of (God) Khaldi, I, Argishti, Son of Menua, erected this stronghold, and named it Erebuni to the glory of the country of Biaina and to the fear of its enemies…. “
Matenadaran, the National Depository of Ancient manuscripts in the Capital
It became part of an Armenian kingdom by the 6th century BC. The city is located on the Razdan River only 14 miles (23 kilometers) from the Turkish border. Erebuni-Yerevan has always played a significant role in the economic, political and social life of Armenia. It was one of the prominent commercial centers and was located across many ancient trade routes. The invasions of Arabs and Seljuk Turks in the VII-XI cc. seriously damaged the city and hindered its further sdevelopment.
Yerevan Capital Opera House
In XV-XIII centuries Yerevan greatly suffered from Ottoman and Persian invasions. After Eastern Armenia became part of Russia in 1828, Yerevan developed into the center of the Yerevan province. The city kept on growing and on the turn of the century it occupied a territory of some 102 sq. km with a population of 30.000 people. Under Soviet regime Yerevan became a thriving industrial city noted especially for its petrochemical industry. The city also produces aluminum, automobiles, turbines, compressors, electrical machinery, and machine tools. Yerevan is a repository of ancient Armenian culture. The Matenadaran Archives contain thousands of priceless ancient manuscripts. The city has an academy of sciences, several research institutions, and a university.
A metro station in Yerevan
Since early Soviet era the city was developed according to the prominent Armenian architect Alexander Tamanian’s design. He successfully incorporated both national traditions and world urban construction elements. The design presented a radial-circular arrangement, most appropriate for the local relief.
Fortress of Erebuni overlooking present-day Yerevan
Yerevan is situated in the north-eastern part of the Ararat Valley. Mounts Aragats, Azhdaak, and Ararat can be seen from the city. With its rugged terrain, Yerevan displays a 400m disparity between its lowest and highest points. The city is divided by Hrazdan River that flows in a picturesque canyon.
The climate in Yerevan is dry and sharply varied with temperatures in summer peaking over 35 C and falling below -15 C in winter.
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